Published Clinical Research Papers – Meno Angel

Published Clinical Research Papers

Vitamin D

According to the BMJ (British Medical Journal) Vitamin D Mitigate COVID-19, Say 40+ Patient Studies (Listed in the link below); Yet BAME, Elderly, Care-home residents, and Obese are still 'Vitamin D' deficient, thus at greater COVID-19 risk - Why?

Dr Holick has noted that Vitamin D deficiency is a global health issue that afflicts more than one billion children and adults worldwide.  He also observed an association of Vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic diseases and Vitamin D deficiency is pandemic (1). Ilie and colleagues observed relationships between Vitamin D levels and the number of COVID-19 cases and also the mortality caused by this infection. Elderly people have a low vitamin D level (2).

Recently an Israeli study done by Dr Merzon and colleagues shows that suboptimal plasma vitamin D levels may be a potential risk factor for COVID-19 infection (3). This study is helpful for healthcare systems in identifying people at risk, and to reduce the risk of the COVID-19 infection. (3). Low plasma 25(OH)D level appears to be an important risk factor for COVID-19 infection (3).

To reduce the risk of infection, Dr Grant and colleagues recommended that people at risk of influenza and/or COVID-19 should consider taking 10,000 IU/day of vitamin D3 for a few weeks to rapidly raise 25(OH)D concentrations, followed by 5000 IU/day. The world is in the grip of the COVID-19 and pandemic, and public health measures can reduce the risk of infection. Vitamin D may act by inducing cathelicidins and defensins that can lower viral replication rates (4).

Hence vitamin D is likely to be very useful in reducing the the spread of corona virus infection.

Dr Mahantayya V Math
Honorary Associate Professor in Physiology

Dr Rita M khadkikar
Associate Professor in Physiology

Dr Yashoda R Kattimani
Associate Professor in Physiology

MGM Medical College, Navi Mumai 410209, Maharashtra State ,India


1. Holick, M.F. (2017) The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: Approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Rev Endocr Metab Disord, 18, 153 -165.
2 Ilie, P.C., Stefanescu, S. and Smith, L. (2020) The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality. Aging Clin Exp Res .
3. Merzon E, Tworowski D, Gomany rohovski A, et al. Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection: an Israeli population-based study [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 23]. FEBS J. 2020;10.1111/febs.15495. doi:10.1111/febs.15495
4. Grant WB, Lahore H, McDonnell SL, Baggerly CA, French CB, Aliano JL, Bhattoa HP. Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths. Nutrients. 2020 Apr 2;12(4):988. doi: 10.3390/nu12040988. PMID: 32252338; PMCID: PMC7231123.

Extract Written by Robert A Brown; Researcher - McCarrison Society, Jersey, C.I



  1. Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Insomnia and Anxiety: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study.

    September 2019 PMID: 31728244

    Deepak Langade, Subodh Kanchi, Jaising Salve, Krokna Debnath, Dhruv Ambegaokar

  2. Body Weight Management in Adults Under Chronic Stress Through Treatment With Ashwagandha Root Extract: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    January 2017 PMID: 27055824

    Dnyanraj Choudhary, Sauvik Bhattacharyya, Kedar Joshi

Acetyl-l-​carnitine improves depression in senile patients.

Evaluation of the effects of L-acetylcarnitine on senile patients suffering from depression.

Drugs Exp NCBI Medical Research 1990;16(2):101-6. PMID: 2205455

G Garzya, D Corallo, A Fiore, G Lecciso, G Petrelli, C Zotti

Multizonal Garrison Hospital V. Fazzi, Geriatric Division, Lecce, Italy.

CONCLUSION: “This investigation establishes that LAC is effective in counteracting symptoms of depression in the elderly. Relief of depressive symptomatology is expressed by decreased scores in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Beck Depression Inventory and by beneficial effects with regard to behavioural aspects”.

Article Published Date: Jan 01, 1990

Acetyl​-l-carnitine delays the mitochondrial decay of aging and improves cognitive function in Alzheimers disease.

Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging with  acetylcarnitine

NCBI Public Medical Research 2004:  15591008

Bruce N Ames, Jiankang Liu

CONCLUSION: A recent meta-​-analysis of 21 double-​-blind clinical trials of acetyl carnitine in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease showed significant efficacy vs. placebo. A meta-​-analysis of 4 clinical trials of LA for treatment of neuropathic deficits in diabetes showed significant efficacy vs. placebo. 

Acetyl-L-Carnitine represents a safe alternative to stimulant drugs in the treatment of ADHD.

A double-blind, parallel, multicentre comparison of L-acetyl carnitine with placebo on the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in fragile X syndrome boys

Abstract Source: Am J Med Genet A. 2008 Apr 1;146(7):803-​-12. PMID: 18286595

Abstract Author(s): M Giulia Torrioli, Silvia Vernacotola, Laura Peruzzi, Elisabetta Tabolacci, Montserrat Mila, Roberto Militerni, Sebastiano Musumeci, Feliciano J Ramos, Marìa Frontera, Giovanni Sorge, Elisabetta Marzullo, Giusi Romeo, Louis Vallee, Edvige Veneselli, Elena Cocchi, Eleonora Garbarino, Umberto Moscato, Pietro Chiurazzi, Stefania D'Iddio, Menotti Calvani, Giovanni Neri

CONCLUSION: Results show that Acetyl-​-L-​-Carnitine (20-​-50 mg/kg/day) represents a safe alternative to the use of stimulant drugs for the treatment of ADHD in FXS children

Article Published Date: Apr 01, 2008

Acetyl-l-​carnitine and R-​alpha-​lipoic acid partially reverses brain decay and RNA/DNA oxidation associated with memory loss in rats. 

Abstract Source: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.2002 Feb 19;99(4):2356-​-61. PMID: 11854529

Abstract Author(s): Jiankang Liu, Elizabeth Head, Afshin M Gharib, Wenjun Yuan, Russell T Ingersoll, Tory M Hagen, Carl W Cotman, Bruce N Ames

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that feeding ALCAR and LA to old rats improves performance on memory tasks by lowering oxidative damage and improving mitochondrial function 
Article Published Date: Feb 19, 2002

Acetyl-​L-​carnitine is effective in the treatment of early stages of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

Abstract Title: [Acetyl-​L-​carnitine (carnicetine) in the treatment of early stages of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia].

Abstract Source: Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2011 ;111(9):16-​-22. PMID: 22027664 

Abstract Author(s): S I Gavrilova, Ia B Kalyn, I V Kolykhalov, I F Roshchina, N D Selezneva

CONCLUSION: Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) can be recommended in the abovementioned doses for treatment of early stages of Alzheimer’s disease and Vascular Dementia.

Article Published Date: Jan 01, 2011

A nutrient combination improves cognitive function in head injured former NFL players.

Abstract Title: Reversing brain damage in former NFL players: implications for traumatic brain injury and substance abuse rehabilitation.

Abstract Source: J Psychoactive Drugs. 2011 Jan-​-Mar;43(1):1-​-5. PMID: 21615001

Abstract Author(s): Daniel G Amen, Joseph C Wu, Derek Taylor, Kristen Willeumier

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that cognitive and cerebral blood flow improvements are possible in this group with multiple interventions.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2011

Acetyl l-​Carnitine (ALC) treatment in elderly patients with fatigue.

Abstract Author(s): Michele Malaguarneraa, Maria Pia Gargantea, Erika Cristaldia, Valentina Colonnaa, Masa Messanob, Aleardo Koverechb, Sergio Neric, Marco Vacanted, Lisa Cammallerid, Massimo Motta

Abstract Source: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics Volume 46, Issue 2, March–April 2008, Pages 181–190

CONCLUSION: Data showed that administering Acetyl l-​-Carnitine may reduce both physical and mental fatigue in elderly and improves both the cognitive status and physical functions. 

Article Published Date: April, 2008 

Acetyl-​L-​carnitine improves cognitive functions in severe hepatic encephalopathy. 

Abstract Author(s): Michele Malaguarnera Marco Vacante Massimo Motta Maria Giordano Giulia Malaguarnera Rita Bella Giuseppe Nunnari Liborio Rampello Giovanni Pennisi

Abstract Source: NCBI Metabolic Brain Disease December 2011, PMID: 21870121

CONCLUSION: The improvement of cognitive deficits, the reduction of ammonia, and the modification of EEG in patients treated with ALC suggest that ALC could represent a new tool in the treatment of severe hepatic encephalopathy.

Article Published Date: 2011 Dec 26 


Alpha GPC is a highly concentrated version of soy lecithin which is thought to increase levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is the primary neurotransmitter regarding memory and learning. Research has found it to significantly improve cognition. It is also plays an important role in protecting brain neurons thereby helping maintain a healthy brain. Alpha GPC has proved such to have such powerful effects on improving cognitive function and brain health that it is viewed as a possible treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Increases cognitive function
  • Beneficial for learning & memory
  • Protects brain health

Alpha-​GPC may afford neuroprotection in the case of vascular brain damage.

Abstract Title: Effect of treatment with choline alphoscerate on hippocampus microanatomy and glial reaction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Abstract Source: Brain Res. 2006 Nov 20;1120(1):183-​90. Epub 2006 Sep 20. NCBI Public Medical Research PMID: 16989788

Abstract Author(s): Daniele Tomassoni, Roberto Avola, Fiorenzo Mignini, Lucilla Parnetti, Francesco Amenta

CONCLUSION: The observation that treatment with choline alphoscerate attenuates the extent of glial reaction in the hippocampus of SHR suggests also that the compound may af ord neuroprotection in this animal model of vascular brain damage."

Article Published Date : Nov 20, 2006

Alpha-​GPC improves cognitive function in mild to moderate Alzhemier's dementia.

Abstract Title: Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-​blind, randomized, placebo-​ controlled trial. 

Abstract Source: Clin Ther. 2003 Jan;25(1):178-​-93. NCBI Public Medical Research PMID: 12637119

Abstract Author(s): Maria De Jesus Moreno Moreno

CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest the clinical usefulness and tolerability of CA in the treatment of the cognitive symptoms of dementia disorders of the Alzheimer type. 
Article Published Date: Jan 01, 2003

Alpha-​-GPC prevents scopolamine-​-induced learning impairment. 

L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine antagonizes scopolamine-induced amnesia and enhances hippocampal cholinergic transmission in the rat.

Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 Feb 18;;211(3):351-8. NCIB Public Medical Research PMID: 1319912

S Sigala, A Imperato, P Rizzonelli, P Casolini, C Missale, P Spano

The data suggest that the behavioural effects of alpha-GPC may be related to its property to increase hippocampal ACh synthesis and release."

Alpha-​GPC may increase the expression of Nerve Growth Factor receptors in the rat cerebellar cortex.

Abstract Title: Nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity in the cerebellar cortex of aged rats: effect of choline alfoscerate treatment. 

Abstract Source: Mech Ageing Dev. 1993 Jun;69(1-​-2):119-​-27. NCBI Public Medical Research PMID: 8377526

Abstract Author(s): J A Vega, C Cavallotti, M E del Valle, M Mancini, F Amenta

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that choline alfoscerate treatment may increase the expression of NGF receptors in the rat cerebellar cortex."

Article Published Date : Jun 01, 1993

Alpha-GPC reverses scopolamine​-induced amnesia and improves learning in young and old rats.

Abstract Title: Molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a new cognition- enhancing drug, on behavioural and biochemical parameters in young and aged rats.

Abstract Source: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1992 Sep;43(1):139-​-51. NCBI Public Medical Research PMID: 1409797

Abstract Author(s): G Schettini, C Ventra, T Florio, M Grimaldi, O Meucci, A Scorziello, A Postiglione, A Marino

CONCLUSION: These results show that alpha-GPC improves the performance of animals in both active and passive conditioning tasks. Furthermore, subchronic treatment with the compound enhances in young and restores in aged animals the transduction of the signal, namely, the receptor- mediated production of inositol phosphate and the potassium-​induced calcium mobilization. These modifications may represent at least part of the molecular mechanism of action of the compound." Article Published Date: Sep 01, 1992


L-​Tyrosine is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by the cells of the body to synthesize proteins.

It is a precursor to a number of important neurotransmitters. L-​Tyrosine is involved in the manufacture of Epinephrine, Dopamine and Noradrenaline all neurotransmitters that play a key role in mental alertness and focus. Many studies show that L-​Tyrosine is particularly effective at reducing the effects of stress or fatigue on mental performance. Particularly important for those wanting to stay focused when fatigued or studying long hours. 

  • Supports mental energy & motivation
  • Increases focus & concentration
  • Improves mood & mental clarity

Tyrosine promotes cognitive flexibility: Evidence from proactive vs reactive control during task switching performance.

Abstract Author(s): Laura Steenbergen , Roberta Sellaro, Bernhard Hommel, Lorenza S. Colzato Neuropsychologia 69 (2015) 50-​-55

CONCLUSION: Tyrosine administration enhances brain dopamine & enhances cognitive flexibility. Article Published Date: Jan 2015 

Tyrosine reverses a cold-​induced working memory deficit in humans

Abstract Author(s): David Shurtleff, John R. Thomas, John Schrot, Kathleen Kowalski, Robert Harford Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Volume 47, Issue 4, April 1994, Pages 935–941 

CONCLUSION: Tyrosine was effective in protecting against the effects of cold stress on DMTS performance, possibly by preventing cold stress-​-induced reduction in brain catecholamine levels. Article Published Date: April 1994

Food for creativity: Tyrosine promotes deep thinking

Abstract Author(s): Lorenza S. Colzato, Annelies M. de Haan, Bernhard Hommel Psychological Research (2015) 79:709–714

CONCLUSION: Found that Tyrosine did promote convergent (‘‘deep’’) thinking. As convergent thinking arguably requires more cognitive top-​-down control, this finding suggests that Tyrosine can facilitate control-​-hungry creative operations.

Article Published Date: September 2014

Lion’s Mane: (Hericium erinaceus) 

Lion’s Mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) is a medicinal mushroom which has been used in Asia for centuries because of its incredible neuroprotective powers. In Japan it was discovered that the mushroom stimulates the synthesis of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF). This is the primary protein nutrient responsible for enhancing and repairing neurological disorders. 

Also Lion’s mane has also been shown to reduce beta-​-amyloid plaques. These plaques are thought to play a role in diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's.

In a 16 week Human Study the lion’s mane group scored significantly higher on the cognitive function scale compared with placebo group with no adverse effects. Prompting scientists to believe it may be possible benefits against dementia.

  • Stimulates synthesis of Nerve Growth Factor 
  • Reduces nerves from damage due to aging 
  • Powerful Neuroprotective powers & antioxidant 
  • Supports memory & cognitive function

Abstract Author(s): Mori K1, Inatomi S, Ouchi K, Azumi Y, Tuchida T. -​ Phytother Res. 2009 Mar;23(3):367-​-72

CONCLUSION: “The results obtained in this study suggest that Yamabushitake is effective in improving mild cognitive impairment.”

Article Published Date: March 2009

The Anti-​Dementia effect of Lion's Mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceum) and its clinical application. 

Abstract Author(s): Hirokazu Kawagishi, Cun Zhuang, and Ellen Shnidman –

Abstract Source: Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients Apr. 2004, p. 54+ 

CONCLUSION: Our research on components of Lion's Mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceum) and their biological activities in cell culture is a case where positive anti-​-dementia results in the laboratory have been confirmed by analogous results in human use.” Link (Article Preview): 
Article Published Date: April 2004


L-​Theanine is an amino acid which mostly found in tea leaves and used commonly used to improve mood and lower stress. It plays a vital role in Instant Genius CoffeeTM because of its ability activate the neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and Gaba, that have a calming effect.

The result is to simultaneously increase focus and concentration without any harsh jittery side effects. This creates a calm but focus feeling which is deal whilst studying, problem solving and creative work. It has been essential ingredient in our search to provide a “clear head and clean energy”.

  • Increases focus and improves memory 
  • Improves mood and lowers stress 
  • Strong antioxidant The Effects of L-​-Theanine on attention and reaction time response. 
Abstract Author(s): Akiko Higashiyama, , Hla Hla Htay, , Makoto Ozeki, , Lekh R. Juneja, , Mahendra P. Kapoor, Abstract Source: Journal of Functional Foods Volume 3, Issue 3, July 2011, Pages 171–178

CONCLUSION: “Results evidently demonstrated that L-​-theanine clearly has a pronounced effect on attention performance and reaction time response in normal healthy subjects prone to have high anxiety.”

Article Published Date: July 2011

L-​Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses.

Abstract Author(s): Kimura K1, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira H.

Abstract Source: Biological Psychology Volume 74, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 39–45

CONCLUSION: “Thus, it was suggested that the oral intake of L-​Theanine could cause anti-​stress effects via the inhibition of cortical neuron excitation.”

Article Published Date: 22 June 2006

The acute effects of L-​-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans.

Abstract Author(s): Lu K1, Gray MA, Oliver C, Liley DT, Harrison BJ, Bartholomeusz CF, Phan KL, Nathan PJ.

Abstract Source: Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 19(7):457-​-65 · October 2004 

CONCLUSION: “Thus, it was suggested that the oral intake of L-Theanine could cause anti-stress effects via the inhibition of cortical neuron excitation.”

Article Published Date: May 2004

Vitamin B6: 

Vitamin B6 is plays an important role in optimising neurotransmitters, particularly serotonin and the neurotransmitter which responsible for ensuring a positive mood. Vitamin B6 also assists the body make haemoglobin, which is responsible for carrying oxygen to the brain.

As Vitamin B6 is so important for nerve function, depleted levels of Vitamin B6 in your diet can lead to decreased cognitive ability, lack of focus or energy, brain tissue shrinkage. 

  • Mood enhancement 
  • Brain Health 
  • Energy production

Reducing occupational stress with a B-​vitamin focussed intervention.

Abstract Author(s): Lu K1, Gray MA, Oliver C, Liley DT, Harrison BJ, Bartholomeusz CF, Phan KL, Nathan PJ.

Abstract Source: Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 19(7):457-​-65 · October 2004

CONCLUSION: “Occupational stress is a multibillion dollar problem. Effective strategies reducing occupational stress are urgently required. Dietary supplementation with B group vitamins may be an economically viable and sustainable intervention. Reducing occupational stress will have enormous benefits for decreasing stress claims, absenteeism, and increasing work productivity. Vitamin B supplementation is also likely to have additional health and quality of life benefits.”

Article Published Date: 2014 Dec 22

Homocysteine-​Lowering by B Vitamins Slows the Rate of Accelerated Brain Atrophy in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Abstract Author(s): David Smith, Stephen M. Smith, Celeste A. de Jager, Philippa Whitbread, Carole Johnston, Grzegorz Agacinski, Abderrahim Oulhaj,, Kevin M. Bradley, Robin Jacoby, Helga Refsum

CONCLUSION: “We have shown that treatment for two years with B vitamins markedly slows the accelerated rate of atrophy in people with MCI”

Article Published Date: Published: September 8, 2010 

B vitamin supplementation improves cognitive function in the middle aged and elderly with hyperhomocysteinemia.

Abstract Author(s): Cheng D1,2,3, Kong H2, Pang W1, Yang H1, Lu H4, Hua

CONCLUSION: “The results demonstrated that supplement containing folate, vitamin B 6 , and vitamin B 12 in middle-​aged and elderly patients with hyperhomocysteinemia could improve their cognitive function partly and reduce serum tHcy levels.”

Article Published Date: 02 Mar 2016

Intakes of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 and risk of depression in community-​- dwelling older adults.

Abstract Author(s): Gougeon L1,2, Payette H3,4, Morais JA5, Gaudreau P6,7, Shatenstein B8,9, Gray-Donald K2.

CONCLUSION: “This study provides some evidence of decreased depression risk among women with higher intakes of vitamin B6 from food.”

Article Published Date: 9 Dec 2015


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